New Research

All starts with Chinese Characters.

The philosophical thinking of a nation is the fundamental and most stable element in building its national spirit. The ancient Chinese had their own considerations and understandings of the universe, society and life in their long history and had established a complete ideological system full of China’s own characteristics, which affected the Chinese way of thinking and life.

Read more: 1.1.1 Philosophy-Key Figures in Confucianism Confucius (Kong Zi) 儒家思想重要人物:孔子

Mencius (circa 372–289 BC), whose official name is Meng Ke, was a key Confucian figure in the Warring States Period. Mencius inherited and developed Confucius’s thought and became a Confucian master second only to Confucius. He has been regarded the Second Master to Confucius (Yasheng), and named together with Confucius as “Kong-Meng”.

Read more: 1.1.2 Key Figures in Confucianism Mencius (Meng Zi) 儒家思想重要人物:孟子

Rites (礼, li) is one of the most important concepts in Confucianism. This can be traced back to the origin of Confucianism. The Chinese character for Confucianism is 儒 (ru). The etymological analysis suggests that it means a person taking a bath. Bathing and cleansing is the primary means before conducting ritual ceremonies. The original Confucians were actually persons who conducted ritual ceremonies as a profession. This is why in Confucianism, ritual ceremonies are very important.

Read more: 1.2.1 The Core Teachings of Confucianism: Rites 儒家思想核心:礼

The character 道 (dao) literally means the road, the way or the path. Every thing has its own trajectory and development path, which must not be altered. The sun and the earth have their orbits; trees, flowers and plants grow according to a certain pattern. If their paths were altered, or the law of nature be violated, there would be chaos and disaster.

Read more: 1.2.3 Dao, Li and the Investigation of Things for the Extension of Knowledge 道学 理学等学派
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